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The present tense is the tense that is, the form of the verb that may be used to express: action at the present, state of being, an occurrence in the very near future; or an action that occurred in the past and continues up to the present. Present simple, which is used to describe both habits and routines (I get up at 8 o’clock every morning), and general facts or the truth (The earth goes round the sun).English speakers use the present simple for thoughts and feelings. Present Progressive or present continuous, which is used to describe events happening now, e.g. where, is Margaret? She is having a bath. The present perfect tense is a perfect tense used to express action that has been completed with respect to the present. The word perfect in its name refers to the idea of completion of being now finished rather than to perfection in the sense of no flaws.” I have finished” is an example of the present perfect.



*Lesson plan

Clover-01-june[1]*Lesson plan : present simple:


Level: Secondary School

Ss to practice speaking spontaneously and fluently about something that may provoke the use of words phrases they have been learning recently.

-To develop Ss ability to use language in real life situations.

-To develop Ss speaking and reading skills.

-To develop Ss’ listening-comprehension abilities.

-To revise and reinforce grammar concerning the present tense.



By the end of the lesson the Ss will be able to:

-Use correctly the new grammar problem.

-Use the new words and phrases in-self created contexts.

Tim/50 min

-Skills involves speaking, reading, writing, listening.

              Clover-01-june[1]                      * Lesson Plan: Present tense Continuous:

Level: Secondary School

Teaching Aim:

-To present and give practice to the present continuous developing speaking ability.

-To provide practice so the students can understand what it is used this tense.

-Learning aim: to make clear my instruction.

Activities: the teacher greets the students, talks with them and gets them ready for the class. The students had to prepare an exercise using present simple tense. The teacher writes on the board, “I am drinking some milk now”, “I always drink milk in the morning”. Underline and discusses the tenses. Brains tow their idea about what they usually do and what they are doing at the moment. The teacher asks to find further example in the dialogue. In group of three read the dialogue aloud. Then with books closed Ss try to reproduce the first part of the dialogue from memory. The teacher encourages them to use gestures and facial expressions for aim.                                                                                                                                                                                   Entertainment-02-june[1]

Skills Practiced:

Check the student’s previous knowledge, reading ability, phonetic drill, speaking, individual work, reading ability, speaking ability.

 Clover-01-june[1]                       *Lesson plan: Present perfect 

Level: Secondary School

Lesson Aims:

-To develop Ss’ speaking and listening competence.

-To revise grammar concerning present perfect.

-To develop Ss’ ability to use language in real life situations.


BY the end of the lesson the Ss will be able to:

-Use correctly the revised grammar problems.

Tim: 50 min.

Skills involved speaking, writing, listening.


Activity 1: (3 min)

Teacher‘s activity: teacher enters the classroom, greets the Ss, asks them how they are, if there are any Ss missing. Teacher remembers the task for the day. Teacher asks Ss to review it quickly to make sure there were no problems solving it at home.Teacher correct the mistakes, if any.

Skills: reading.

Activity2 (5 min)

Continue the exercise with thing that children have done and write them on the blackboard.

Skills: writing, speaking.

Teacher’s activity: teacher asks Ss to listen and Student’s activity: Ss solve the task.

Activity 3: (5 min).

Teacher asks the Ss to listen and then write a postcard to their mum describing some pictures. Students’ activity, Ss write the postcard then report to the class.

There are four quizzes in the lesson you can try to get the highest marks.

*Simple present tense*


* The present simple is the base form of adverb, e. g. play, know, and take.


-You know the answer.

-I usually take the bus.

* In the third person singular we add-s or-es.

Tom knows the answer.

-My sister usually takes the bus.

-This color matches my jacket.

-She often goes to the movies a lot.

    -How do we make the simple present tense?

Subject + auxiliary verb + main verb.



auxiliary verb


main verb





I, you, we, they





He, she, it







I, you, we, they





He, she, it









He, she, it









–         Look at these examples with the main verb be. Notice that there no auxiliary:





main verb









You, we, they




He, she, it









You, we, they




He, she, it











v Use the present simple to talk about things in general.

 We are not thinking only about the present.

We use it to say that something happens all the time or repeatedly, or that something is true in general.


-The earth goes round the sun.

-Nurses look after patients in hospitals.    

-In Britain most of the shops close at 5.30 p.m.

-The Sun sets in the west.

-The Moon always appears first in the East.


v  Use do/does to make questions and negative sentences.

  • Hi, here you have a vido which speaking about  simple present.

E. g

–         Excuse me, do you speak English?

–         Would you like acing a rette? ‘No’ thanks. I don’t smoke.

–         What does this word mean?

–         Rice doesn’t grow in Britain.

–         I drink coffee before bed time because it doesn’t keep me


–         How does Tom go to work?

–         When does Sally visit her parents?

–         We need to explain again. She doesn’t understand.

–         We sometimes don’t use the stereo, but it very well work.


v Use the present simple when we say how often we do things.


–         I get up at 8 o’clock every morning.

–         How often do you go to the dentist?

–         Ann doesn’t often drink tea.

–         In summer tom usually plays tennis twice a week.

–         How often does Tom play tennis?

–         How often the car breaks down?

–         How often do you go swimming?


v When you make a suggestion, you can say why don’t you …?


–         I’m tired, ‘why don’t you go to bed early?

–         Why don’t we meet at the station?

–         Why don’t we all go out for a meal?


–         Use the present simple for actions that happen regularly, for example, everyday.

–         Example

–         I read the newspaper every day.                                                                                                                                    Book-07-june[2]

–         We telephone each other every Saturday.

–         You pass my house every morning.

–         They practice their music every evening.

–         Helmi and Beng Kiat attend computer classes every Thursday.                                                                                                                                            


The present simple tense is very often used with adverbs of repeated time.


-I always come to school by car.

-He never forgets to do his homework.

-She frequently arrives here before me.

-I often catch the late bus home.

-We often sleep late at the week end.

– Julia never eats breakfast.

-He sometimes plays tennis.

-She often goes to the movies a lot.

 -He usually sleeps eight hours a night.

-Peter washes his hair every day.

-Julia always enjoys parties.

*The present continuous tense*

Clover-01-june[1]        *The present continuous is the present of be +ing-form.


For the subjects in column 1, use the 2 parts of the verb in columns 2 and 3

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3


‘helping’ verb

-ing form or present continuous form of the main verb


He, she, it

We, they, you




Talk + ing       talking

Dig + g + ing       digging

Mak- e + ing        making


  • Example:                                                                                                                        69

–         I am talking to my aunt on the telephone.

–         He is digging a drain around the house.

–         We are making a model of the village.

–         The students are discussing their new Geography project with their teacher.

–         The singers are practicing their new song for next week’s concert.

–         Oh dear! The snake is swallowing the bird’s egg.

–         The boys and girls are exercising in the school field for Sports Day tomorrow.

–         The police officers are surrounding the house where the robbers are hiding.

–         The tourists are completing the immigration forms at the airport.

–         Ali and Tom repairing the broken chair in our classroom.


* Sometimes you have to make changes to spelling when you add- ing to the main verbs, e. g. dig- digging, make- making.

*Here are some guides to changes in spelling:

 5 (2)

  1. Adding- ing only: many verbs are like talk. Just add ing to make the present participle form.
  2. Doubling the last letter and add- ing. Some verbs end in a consonant, like g, in dig.
  • Double the last consonant (add , to dig) then add- ing (dig- digging). Other such verbs include:
  • Verbs that end in T :-


Cut       cut + T+ ing       cutting.

*Verbs that end in R




Transfer        transfer + R + ing        trans ferring.

*Verbs ending in consonants such as L:

  • You can learn more about present continuous by watching this video.


Travel        travel + L + ing        travelling.

* Verbs ending in consonants such as M and N


Swim       swim + ming       swimming.

Run         run + ning       running.

* Some verbs end in E, like make. Drop the E, add- ing.


Write       writ – E + ing       writing.

      -Uses several of the present continuous:-






*We use the present continuous when we talk about something which is happening at the time of speaking.

         Example: –                                                                                 –      Ann is in her car. She is on her way to work. She is driving to


–         Please don’t make so much noise. I’m studying.

–         Where is Margaret?’ ‘She’s having a bath’.

–         Let’s go out now. It is not raining any more.

–         (at a party) hello, Ann. Are you enjoying the party?

–         The runners of the marathon are crossing in the junction at this time.

–         Listen to those people. What language are they speaking?

–         Why are you looking at me like that? Have I said something wrong?

* We also use the present continuous when we talk about something which is happening around the time of speaking, but not necessarily exactly at the time of speaking.


–         Tom and Ann are talking and drinking in a cafe. Tom says I’m reading an interesting book at the moment. I’ll lend it to you when I’ve finished it’.

* Tom is not reading the book at the time of speaking. He means that he has begun the book and hasn’t finished it yet. He is in the middle of reading it.



–         Silvia is learning English at the moment.

–         Have you heard about tom? He is building his own house.

* Perhaps Silvia and tom are not doing these things exactly at the time of speaking.

* We often use the present continuous when we talk about a period around the present. For example: today, this season etc.


–         ‘You’re working hard today. You, I have a lot to do.

–         Tom is not playing football this season. He wants to concentrate on his studies.

–         The runners of the marathon are crossing the junction at this time.

* We use the present continuous when we talk about changing situations.


-The population of the world is rising very fast.

       -Is your English getting better?

       -The world is changing. Things never stay the same.

       -The shop owners are raising their workers for working extra hours.


*We use the present continuous for temporary states and activities.


  • I’m staying with friends for a month.
  • Ali is painting his house this week.

*We use the present continuous for future plans.

  • Sam is playing football tomorrow.
  • Are you doing anything on Saturday?

*Verbs which express permanent feelings, permanent states of mind and the senses are usually in the present / past simple, not the present / past continuous. These are the most common: appear, believe, belong, detest, forget, hate, hear, know, like, look, love, mean, need, own, prefer, realize, remember, see, understand, seem, smell, sound, taste.



–         I know the way to town.

–         What sort of music do you like?

–         They don’t understand.

*Present perfect *


The present perfect tense verbs tell you about completed action.

They tell you about the actions that have happened but the time of

action is not given.


She has played the computer for many years.

  • The present perfect is the present tense of have + past participle.



–         I’ve finished with the computer now.

–         The train is late. It hasn’t even reached swindon yet.

–         Has Sarah passed her exams?

–         How long have you worked here?  

–         The sun has shone on the wet road and it is now dry.

–         Ravi has drunk too much coffee.

–         Ali has hurt himself and must take a rest.

–         Those two dogs have fought before and must not be allowed in the same yard.  


Present perfect

Short forms


I / you /we /they have played

He/ she/ it has played

I’ve/ you’ve/ we’ve/

they’ve played/ he’s/ she’s/

It’s played.


I /you/ we/ they have not played

He/ she/ it hasn’t played.


Have/ I /you/ we/ they played?

Has he / she/ it/ played?



  • The use of the present perfect:
  • We use the present perfect when we talk about a period of time that continues up to the present.



–         Have you seen my dog? I can’t find him anywhere.

–         Everything is going fine. We haven’t had any problems so far.

–         We’ve met a lot of interesting people in the last few days.

–         Fred has been ill a lot in the past few years, hasn’t he?

–         I haven’t seen George recently. Have you?

–         She has lived in Malaysia for six years.

(He started living in Malaysia six years ago, and she is still living there now.)

–         He has worked at the University since 2000.

(He started working at the University in 2000, and he is still working there now).

  • We use the present perfect with this morning / this evening / today / this week / this term etc.



–         I’ve smoked two cigarettes today.

–         Has Ann had a holiday this year?

–         I have not seen tom this morning. Have you?

–         Ron has not studied very much this term.

–         Bill is phoning his girl – friend again. That’s third time he’s.

  • You can improve your knowledge about present perfect by watching this video.

–         Phoned her this evening. 



  • We can also use the present perfect for repeated actions before now. It means that the action may happen again.
  • Examples

–  I’ve ridden horse lots of times.

–  We’ve often talked about immigrating to Australia.

    –    Gayle has acted in more than fifty.

  • Some typical time expressions with the present perfect are just, recently, lately, already, before, so far, still, ever / never, today, this morning, evening, for weeks, years, since, 1998.



–   I have had these skis for years.

–   I have been here since three o’clock.

–   The new bridge has just opened.

–   Have you ever been to Malaysia?

–   Have you ever met a famous person?

–   I have switched off the light before going out this morning.

–   I have never spoken to your father.